By William Croft
1. creation; 2. Typological type; three. Implicational universals and competing motivations; four. Grammatical different types: typological markedness; five. Grammatical hierarchies and the semantic map version; 6. Prototypes and the interplay of typological styles; 7. Syntactic argumentation and syntactic constitution in typology; eight. Diachronic typology; nine. Typology as an method of language.
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Of those orders, Greenberg analyzes only SOY, VSO and SVO, although he was aware of the existence of VOS and OVS languages. Later research confirmed the existence of vas and OVS languages, and has suggested that there also exist OSV languages (Derbyshire 1977; Derbyshire and Pullum 1981; Pullum 1977, 1981). The six-way classification can be divided into binary parameters, SVNS and OvNO. This division has a number of advantages (Dryer 1997b). Many languages have much freer word order than English, yet some orders are more frequent than 70 Universals and competing motivations others, and hence one can reasonably speak of a basic clausal word order for that language.
Principle 3 does not apply, since they are not in focus (and, apparently, principle 1 does not apply either). Instead, principle 2 applies: they are attracted to the head noun of the relative clause. In other words, for information questions, focusing - generally governed by principle 3 - overrides conceptual closeness, while for relative pronouns focusing does not apply, and so principle 2 is free to apply. Typologically this means that language types in which the relative pronoun is not positioned next to the head noun should not exist, even 67 if the question word (allegedly the same constituent type) is moved to a focus position.
Above all, the choice of the correct generalization(s) to account for the constraints on possible language types is determined by the proposed theory behind the relationships between parameters. 1), the unattested types are found on a diagonal in the tetrachoric table. Greenberg phrased his universal as two opposite implicational universals: Prep J NGen and Post J GenN. These can be combined to a biconditional universal: Prep == NGen (and its contrapositive, Post == GenN). The relationship between a biconditional universal and a logical equivalence (indicated by ==) is given below (compare to the truth table for implication above): Truthtable for implication P Q P==Q T T T T F F F T F F F T Distribution of attested types Prep NGen Attested (Prep == NGen) yes yes yes yes no no no yes no no yes no A biconditional universal is not the same as an implicational universal.
Typology and universals by William Croft