By Robin F. Haines
Robin Haines has analysed the origins, occupations, literacy, and mobilization of emigrants recruited within the united kingdom on behalf of colonial legislatures. Her exploration of strict choice tactics exhibits that the symbiosis among the clergy, empire-minded philanthropic societies, and parishes, which mixed to fund the emigrants' massive pre-departure costs, elevated the possibilities for underemployed rural and family employees in the course of an period of farm clarification and commercial restructuring. even though negative, hybrid kingdom and personal investment enabled them to relocate to Australia the place their talents have been in demand.
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Extra info for Emigration and the Labouring Poor: Australian Recruitment in Britain and Ireland, 1831–60
Buckinghamshire Bedfordshire Berkshire Berwickshire Brecknock, W. Cambridgeshire Carmarthenshire, W. Cheshire Carnarvon, W. Cardigan Cumberland Cornwall Devon Dorset Durham Denbigh, W. Derby Essex Flintshire, W. Guernsey Gloucester Glamorgan, W. hire Leicestershire Lincolnshire Middlesex Monmouth Montgomery, W. Norfolk Nottinghamshire Northamptonshire Northumberland Oxfordshire Radnorshire, W. 11 43 continued England and Wales Pembroke, W. Rutland Somerset Surrey Suffolk Sussex Shropshire Staffordshire Wiltshire Worcestershire Warwickshire Yorkshire Westmorland Counties not given Total SA 1854-55 6 4 583 343 175 174 29 64 277 11 88 123 1416 10 622 1855-56 Victoria 1854-55 NSW 1851 Census 13 2 448 390 140 59 16 64 200 18 42 236 3 18 30 937 321 323 159 43 39 287 36 120 174 4 94000 23000 444000 681000 337000 337000 229000 609000 254000 277 000 475000 2033000 58000 6924 10 401 Sources: Annual reports of the colonial Immigration Agents.
19 The Scottish preference for Victoria, which was well established by 1848 in both Northern and Southern counties, appears to have been motivated by familial chains, and Inverness maintained its prominent position in all three colonies. 5 SA (1854-55, 1857-60) Sources: Data for NSW (1837-50) and Port Phillip (Victoria, 1839-50) were extracted from RJ. Shultz, The Assisted Immigrants, 1837-1850, pp. 271-2, 238-9, 326-7, 370-1. Shultz uses shipping lists. Co Is 3-5: Reports of the Immigration Agents, extracted from Tables 5-9, Haines, 'Nineteenth century govemmentassisted immigrants', pp.
If we add these known anomalies to those unknown (but probably substantial) numbers of pioneering family members whose kin contributed towards the full fare because, by virtue of age, gender, or occupation, they may have been ineligible for· a government passage and, if we consider those who received financial help from friends or relatives already in the colony for similar reasons, it is probable that the number who received subventions from all quarters was markedly higher than the official data suggest.
Emigration and the Labouring Poor: Australian Recruitment in Britain and Ireland, 1831–60 by Robin F. Haines