By Michael Lister
Within the period of globalisation, ecu integration, mass migration, and altering styles of political participation and welfare country provision, the appropriate form and constitution of citizenship in Europe appears to be like changing. This publication explores those advancements in the course of the research of a variety of views, uniting a theoretical orientation with an empirical technique. The relevant topic of the publication is that the way we verify the influence of those alterations on citizenship depends on how we view citizenship theoretically. The textual content is split into sections. First, the booklet identifies 3 major theoretical techniques to citizenship: classical positions (liberal, communitarian and republican); multiculturalist and feminist theories of citizenship; and the extra problem raised by means of post-national or cosmopolitan theories of citizenship. the second one part makes a speciality of 4 key social, monetary and political advancements - migration, political participation, the welfare country and ecu integration - all of which increase primary questions on the prestige and that means of citizenship in modern Europe.
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Additional info for Citizenship in Contemporary Europe
In a classic double bind, women are banished to the private realm of the family, either physically or figuratively, because they do not display such qualities and because of their association with that realm, they are deemed incapable of developing them. (Lister 2003: 72) — 35 — 02 pages 001-218:Layout 1 10/4/08 16:25 Page 36 Citizenship in contemporary Europe Thinking about the theories of citizenship outlined in Chapter One, gender biases might be identified in all. For liberal citizenship, the issue is around the emphasis placed on the public–private divide.
The gender pay gap for the EU15 (the number of member countries in the EU before 1 May 2004) is 16 per cent. 6 per cent of men (Commission of the European Communities 2005: 4). These figures show that whilst women are formally included in the labour market, their participation is substantively different to that of men. Women are consistently underrepresented in politics. 1 shows that women are persistently underrepresented in national assemblies. Whilst there is considerable debate about how important the proportion of women in national assemblies is, in terms of furthering gender equality (Childs and Krook 2006) the gender imbalance is striking.
Republican freedom Republican citizenship is, like liberal citizenship, concerned with promoting freedom. For liberal citizenship, the overriding aim is to provide certain rights, which provide and sustain the freedom of the individual. This is conceived of as freedom from interference so that individuals can pursue their (private) goals in life. Republican citizenship is also animated by a concern to protect and ensure freedom, but it is a rather different notion of freedom; where liberal citizenship sees freedom as being about a lack of interference, for republicans, liberty consists in a freedom from domination, which involves self-government.
Citizenship in Contemporary Europe by Michael Lister